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One-Child Policy

Definition

The one-child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population planning policy of China. It was introduced in 1979 and began to be formally phased out near the end of 2015 and the beginning of 2016. The policy allowed exceptions for many groups, including ethnic minorities. Provincial governments imposed fines for violations, and the local and national governments created commissions to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.

What was the 'One-Child Policy'

The one-child policy was a policy implemented by the Chinese government as a method of controlling the population. The one-child policy was introduced in 1979 in response to an explosive population growth, and mandated that couples from China's Han majority could only have one child. This was intended to alleviate the social, economic and environmental problems associated with the country's rapidly growing population.

Explaining 'One-Child Policy'

Families can be fined thousands of dollars for having more than one child. Those who volunteer to have just one child are awarded a "Certificate of Honor for Single-Child Parents." It has been estimated that since 1979, the law has prevented approximately 250 million births. In certain cases, families can apply to have a second child for extenuating circumstances such as the death of the only child due to a natural disaster. In rural areas, families can apply to have a second child if the first child is a girl, or if the child has a physical or mental disability. (For more, see Benefits of China Changing It's One Child Policy.)


Further Reading


China's one-child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women
www.sciencedirect.com [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

Losing an only child: the one-child policy and elderly care in ChinaLosing an only child: the one-child policy and elderly care in China
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

One-child policy and family firms in ChinaOne-child policy and family firms in China
www.sciencedirect.com [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

Can China afford to continue its one-child policy?Can China afford to continue its one-child policy?
scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

Little emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child PolicyLittle emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child Policy
science.sciencemag.org [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

Investing in the future: The one child policy and reformInvesting in the future: The one child policy and reform
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

The evolution of China's one-child policy and its effects on family outcomesThe evolution of China's one-child policy and its effects on family outcomes
www.aeaweb.org [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

Family size and maternal health: evidence from the One-Child policy in ChinaFamily size and maternal health: evidence from the One-Child policy in China
link.springer.com [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

Population, policy, and politics: how will history judge China's one-child policy?Population, policy, and politics: how will history judge China's one-child policy?
www.jstor.org [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …

The effects of China's universal two-child policyThe effects of China's universal two-child policy
www.sciencedirect.com [PDF]
… The one-child policy has not been uniform across China. The size of the subsidies and penalties and the exceptions to the policy varied across villages and regions. We exploit this wide variation in policies at the community level by analyzing data from the China Health and …



Q&A About One-Child Policy


What is the one-child policy?

The one-child policy was a method of controlling population growth in China.

Why did the Chinese government implement the one-child policy?

The Chinese government implemented the one child policy because they believed it would alleviate social, economic and environmental problems associated with their rapidly growing population.

How did the one-child policy attempt to control population growth?

The one-child policy attempted to control population growth by mandating that couples could only have one child.

How many people were affected by the rule?

About 36 of the Chinese population was affected by the rule.