What is ‘Ratio Analysis’
A ratio analysis is a quantitative analysis of information contained in a company’s financial statements. Ratio analysis is based on line items in financial statements like the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement; the ratios of one item – or a combination of items – to another item or combination are then calculated. Ratio analysis is used to evaluate various aspects of a company’s operating and financial performance such as its efficiency, liquidity, profitability and solvency. The trend of these ratios over time is studied to check whether they are improving or deteriorating. Ratios are also compared across different companies in the same sector to see how they stack up, and to get an idea of comparative valuations. Ratio analysis is a cornerstone of fundamental analysis.
Explaining ‘Ratio Analysis’
While there are numerous financial ratios, most investors are familiar with a few key ratios, particularly the ones that are relatively easy to calculate. Some of these ratios include the current ratio, return on equity, the debt-equity ratio, the dividend payout ratio and the price/earnings (P/E) ratio.
- Financial ratios, discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate bankruptcy – www.jstor.org [PDF]
- A short history of financial ratio analysis – www.jstor.org [PDF]
- A financial ratio analysis of commercial bank performance in South Africa – www.ajol.info [PDF]
- Some empirical bases of financial ratio analysis – search.proquest.com [PDF]
- A review of the theoretical and empirical basis of financial ratio analysis – ideas.repec.org [PDF]
- An empirical test of financial ratio analysis for small business failure prediction – www.jstor.org [PDF]
- Ratio analysis and equity valuation: From research to practice – link.springer.com [PDF]
- Financial ratio analysis comes to nonprofits – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]