The Nakahara Prize is an annual award given by the Japanese Economic Association to Japanese economists under the age of 45 whose work has gained international recognition. The prize was created in 1995, and named after its sponsor Nobuyuki Nakahara. The aim of the prize is honoring and encouraging young economists to publish internationally well-recognized papers and books. In 2016, Sagiri Kitao became the first woman awarded the prize.
A naked call occurs when a speculator writes a call option on a security without ownership of that security. It is one of the riskiest options strategies because it carries unlimited risk as opposed to a naked put, where the maximum loss occurs if the stock falls to zero. A naked call is the opposite of a covered call.
A naked put is a put option where the option writer does not have sufficient liquidity to cover the contracts in case of assignment. No amount of underlying stock will satisfy assignment, because the seller/writer is forced to accept the underlying in exchange for cash, even if the cash must come by way of a margin call by the seller's broker. If the option buyer doesn't exercise on or before expiration, the seller keeps the option premium. Due to the risks involved, put writing is rarely used alone. Investors typically use puts in combination with other options contracts.
In finance, a short sale is the sale of an asset that the seller does not own. The seller effects such a sale by borrowing the asset in order to deliver it to the buyer. Subsequently, the resulting short position is "covered" when the seller repurchases the asset in a market transaction and delivers the purchased asset to the lender to replace the quantity initially borrowed. In the event of an interim price decline, the short seller will profit, since the cost ofpurchase will be less than the proceeds received upon the initial sale. Conversely, the short position will result in a loss if the price of a shorted instrument rises prior to repurchase.
A bare trust is a trust in which the beneficiary has a right to both income and capital and may call for both to be remitted into his own name. Assets in a bare trust are held in the name of a trustee, but the beneficiary has the right to all of the capital and income of the trust at any time if they're 18 or over, or 16 or over. Bare trusts are often used to pass assets to young people - the trustees look after them until the beneficiary is old enough.
The combination of payroll taxes withheld from a household employee and the employment taxes paid by their employer are commonly referred to as the nanny tax. Under current law, any family or individual that pays a household employee more than $2,000 a year must withhold and pay Social Security and Medicare taxes, also known as FICA. The law mandates that all domestic workers, such as cooks, nannies, housekeepers and gardeners, are subject to the nanny tax.
Nanyang Business School
Nanyang Business School is the business school of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Singapore's oldest business school, NBS was established in 1956 at the then Nanyang University, which was subsequently absorbed by the National University of Singapore in 1980 before it finally moved to NTU in 1987. It is also the largest business school in Singapore with over 6,800 students pursuing undergraduate, postgraduate and executive programmes.
In economics, broad money is a term denoting a certain measure of the amount of money in a national economy, and it is used depending on the local practice.
Nasdaq Composite Index
The NASDAQ Composite is a stock market index of the common stocks and similar securities listed on the NASDAQ stock market. Along with the Dow Jones Average and S&P 500 it is one of the three most-followed indices in US stock markets. The composition of the NASDAQ Composite is heavily weighted towards information technology companies.
The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange. It is the second-largest exchange in the world by market capitalization, behind only the New York Stock Exchange located in the same city. The exchange platform is owned by Nasdaq, Inc., which also owns the Nasdaq Nordic and Nasdaq Baltic stock market network and several U.S. stock and options exchanges.
In game theory, the Nash equilibrium, named after American mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr., is a solution concept of a non-cooperative game involving two or more players in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only their own strategy. If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing strategies while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices and the corresponding payoffs constitutes a Nash equilibrium. The Nash equilibrium is one of the foundational concepts in game theory. The reality of the Nash equilibrium of a game can be tested using experimental economics methods.
National Bank Surveillance System
The National Bank Surveillance System is a computerized, off-site monitoring system developed by the U.S. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency "to assist in the early detection of problem banks and bank management," for the purpose of initiating early corrective action.
Michael Porter's National Diamond framework resulted from a study of patterns of comparative advantage among industrialized nations. It works to integrate much of Porter's previous work in his competitive five forces theory, his value chain framework as well as his theory of competitive advantage into a consolidated framework that looks at the sources of competitive advantage sourcable from the national context. It can be used both to analyze a firm's ability to function in a national market, as well as analyse a national markets ability to compete in an international market.
National Income Accounting
A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product, gross national product, net national income, and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost. All are specially concerned with counting the total amount of goods and services produced within the economy and by different sectors. The boundary is usually defined by geography or citizenship, and may also restrict the goods and services that are counted. For instance, some measures count only goods & services that are exchanged for money, excluding bartered goods, while other measures may attempt to include bartered goods by imputing monetary values to them.
National treatment is a principle in international law vital to many treaty regimes. It essentially means treating foreigners and locals equally. Under national treatment, if a state grants a particular right, benefit or privilege to its own citizens, it must also grant those advantages to the citizens of other states while they are in that country. In the context of international agreements, a state must provide equal treatment to those citizens of other states that are participating in the agreement. Imported and locally produced goods should be treated equally — at least after the foreign goods have entered the market.
Nationalization is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets or assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being transferred to the state. The opposites of nationalization are privatization and demutualization. When previously nationalized assets are privatized and subsequently returned to public ownership by a later government, they are said to have undergone renationalization. Industries that are usually subject to nationalization include transport, communications, energy, banking and natural resources.
Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms. Some natural capital assets provide people with free goods and services, often called ecosystem services. Two of these underpin our economy and society and make human life possible.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors. This frequently occurs in industries where capital costs predominate, creating economies of scale that are large in relation to the size of the market; examples include public utilities such as water services and electricity. Natural monopolies were discussed as a potential source of market failure by John Stuart Mill, who advocated government regulation to make them serve the public good.
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Net Asset Value
Net asset value is the value of an entity's assets minus the value of its liabilities, often in relation to open-end or mutual funds, since shares of such funds registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission are redeemed at their net asset value. This may also be the same as the book value or the equity value of a business. Net asset value may represent the value of the total equity, or it may be divided by the number of shares outstanding held by investors, thereby representing the net asset value per share.