Jacob Henry Schiff was a Jewish-American banker, businessman, and philanthropist. Among many other things, he helped finance the expansion of American railroads and the Japanese military efforts against Tsarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War.
James A. Mirrlees
Sir James Alexander Mirrlees is a Scottish economist and winner of the 1996 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He was knighted in 1998.
James E. Meade
James Edward Meade CB, FBA was a British economist and winner of the 1977 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences jointly with the Swedish economist Bertil Ohlin for their "pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements."
James H. Clark
James Henry Clark is an American entrepreneur and computer scientist. He founded several notable Silicon Valley technology companies, including Silicon Graphics, Inc., Netscape Communications Corporation, myCFO, and Healtheon. His research work in computer graphics led to the development of systems for the fast rendering of three-dimensional computer images.
James J. Heckman
James Joseph Heckman is an American economist who is currently at the University of Chicago, where he is The Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor in Economics and the College; Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies; Director of the Center for the Economics of Human Development.; Director of the Center for Social Program Evaluation; Co-Director, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working Group, sponsored by The Institute for New Economic Thinking. He is also Professor of Law at the Law School, a senior research fellow at the American Bar Foundation, and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. In 2000, Heckman shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Daniel McFadden, for his pioneering work in econometrics and microeconomics. He is among the most influential economists in the world.
James M. Buchanan Jr.
James McGill Buchanan Jr. was an American economist known for his work on public choice theory, for which he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1986. Buchanan's work initiated research on how politicians' and bureaucrats' self-interest, utility maximization, and other non-wealth-maximizing considerations affect their decision-making. He was a member of the Board of Advisors of The Independent Institute, a member of the Mont Pelerin Society, a Distinguished Senior Fellow of the Cato Institute, and professor at George Mason University.
Jan Tinbergen was an important Dutch economist. He was awarded the first Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1969, which he shared with Ragnar Frisch for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. He is widely considered to be one of the most influential economists of the 20th century and one of the founding fathers of econometrics. It has been argued that the development of the first macro econometric models, the solution of the identification problem, and the understanding of dynamic models are his three most important legacies to econometrics. Tinbergen was a founding trustee of Economists for Peace and Security. In 1945, he founded the Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis and was the agency's first director.
The January barometer is the hypothesis that stock market performance in January predicts its performance for the rest of the year. So if the stock market rises in January, it is likely to continue to rise by the end of December. The January barometer was first mentioned by Yale Hirsch in 1972.
The January effect is a hypothesis that there is a seasonal anomaly in the financial market where securities' prices increase in the month of January more than in any other month. This calendar effect would create an opportunity for investors to buy stocks for lower prices before January and sell them after their value increases. As with all calendar effects, if true, it would suggest that the market is not efficient, as market efficiency would suggest that this effect should disappear.
Jarrow Turnbull Model
The Jarrow–Turnbull credit risk model was published by Robert A. Jarrow of Kamakura Corporation and Cornell University and Stuart Turnbull, currently at the University of Houston. Many experts in financial theory label the Jarrow–Turnbull model as the first "reduced-form" credit model. Reduced-form models are an approach to credit risk modeling that contrasts sharply with the "structural credit models". The structural or "Merton" credit models are single-period models which derive the probability of default from the random variation in the unobservable value of the firm's assets. Two years after the development of the structural credit model, Robert Merton modeled bankruptcy as a continuous probability of default. Upon the random occurrence of default, the stock price of the defaulting company is assumed to go to zero. Merton derived the value of options for a company that can default.
Jeffrey David Sachs is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty. He is known as one of the world's leading experts on economic development and the fight against poverty.
Jekyll and Hyde
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a gothic novella by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson first published in 1886. The work is also known as The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, or simply Jekyll & Hyde. It is about a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr Henry Jekyll, and the evil Edward Hyde. The novella's impact is such that it has become a part of the language, with the very phrase "Jekyll and Hyde" entering the vernacular to refer to people with an unpredictably dual nature: usually very good, but sometimes shockingly evil instead.
In finance, Jensen's alpha is used to determine the abnormal return of a security or portfolio of securities over the theoretical expected return. It is a version of the standard alpha based on a theoretical performance index instead of a market index.
Jérôme Kerviel is a French trader who was convicted in the 2008 Société Générale trading loss for breach of trust, forgery and unauthorized use of the bank's computers, resulting in losses valued at €4.9 billion.
Jerry A. Hausman
Jerry Allen Hausman is the John and Jennie S. MacDonald Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a notable econometrician. He has published numerous influential papers in microeconometrics. Hausman is the recipient of several prestigious awards including the John Bates Clark Medal in 1985 and the Frisch Medal in 1980.
Jesse L. Livermore
Jesse Lauriston Livermore was an American investor and security analyst. Livermore was famed for making and losing several multimillion-dollar fortunes and short selling during the stock market crashes in 1907 and 1929.
Ocean State Job Lot, headquartered in North Kingstown, Rhode Island, is an American discount retailer with 131 stores discount stores operating in New England, New York and New Jersey. The chain takes its name from Rhode Island's nickname, "The Ocean State", and from "Job Lot", which means a miscellaneous group of articles, especially when sold or bought together.Ocean State Job Lot opened for business in 1977 as a single store operation in North Kingstown, RI. The merchandise selection consists of a variety of manufacturer's overruns, overstocks and packaging changes, as well as selected other products. The company continues growing their business in the Northeast.
Initial Jobless Claims is a report issued by the U.S. Department of Labor on a weekly basis. The employment situation is extremely important for a macroeconomic analysis, so the financial markets track employment indicators, although this is a low impact indicator compared with the monthly BLS's "Employment Report". This report tracks how many new people have filed for unemployment benefits in the previous week. It is a good gauge of the U.S. job market. For instance, when more people file for unemployment benefits, fewer people have jobs, and vice versa. Investors can use this report to gather pertinent information about the economy, but it's a very volatile data, so the four-week average of jobless claims is monitored.
A jobless recovery or jobless growth is an economic phenomenon in which a macroeconomy experiences growth while maintaining or decreasing its level of employment. The term was coined by the economist Nick Perna in the early 1990s.
Jobs And Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003
The Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003, was passed by the United States Congress on May 23, 2003 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on May 28, 2003. Nearly all of the cuts were set to expire after 2010.
John B. Taylor
John Brian Taylor is the Mary and Robert Raymond Professor of Economics at Stanford University, and the George P. Shultz Senior Fellow in Economics at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.
John Bates Clark Medal
The John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to "that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge". According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, it "is widely regarded as one of the field's most prestigious awards...second only to the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences." The award was made biennially until 2007, but from 2009 is now awarded every year because of the growth of the field. The award is named after the American economist John Bates Clark. Although the Clark medal is billed as a prize for American economists, it is sufficient that the candidates work in the US at the time of the award; US nationality is not necessary to be considered.
John Bates Clark
John Bates Clark was an American neoclassical economist. He was one of the pioneers of the marginalist revolution and opponent to the Institutionalist school of economics, and spent most of his career as professor at Columbia University.
John Clifton "Jack" Bogle is an American investor, business magnate, and philanthropist. He is the founder and retired chief executive of The Vanguard Group.
John Philip Jacob Elkann is an Italian industrialist. He was the chosen heir of his grandfather Gianni Agnelli, and chairs and controls the automaker Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. He is the chairman and CEO of Exor, an investment company controlled by the Agnelli family, which controls Partner Re, Ferrari, CNH Industrial and Juventus F.C.
John F. Nash Jr.
John Forbes Nash Jr. was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations. Nash's work has provided insight into the factors that govern chance and decision-making inside complex systems found in everyday life.
John Charles Harsanyi was a Hungarian-American economist.
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and was one of the most influential economists of the 20th century and the founder of modern macroeconomic theory. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots.
John B. Neff, CFA, is an American investor, mutual fund manager, and philanthropist. He is notable for his contrarian and value investing styles as well as for heading Vanguard's Windsor Fund. Windsor became the highest returning, and subsequently largest mutual fund in existence during Neff's management—eventually closing to new investors for a period in the 1980s. Neff retired from Vanguard in 1995. During Neff's 31 years, from 1964 to 1995, Windsor returned 13.7% annually versus 10.6% for the S&P 500.
John R. Hicks
John R. Hicks was a murderer executed by the U.S. state of Ohio. He was executed for the August 2, 1985 murder of his 5-year-old stepdaughter, Brandy Green. He was also convicted of the murder of his 56-year-old mother-in-law, Maxine Armstrong, for which he received a life sentence.
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy. Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century", Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control.
John T. Chambers
John Thomas Chambers is the former executive chairman and CEO of Cisco Systems.
John T. Dillon
John T. Dillon, is the retired chairman and chief executive officer of International Paper.
A joint account is a bank account shared by two or more individuals. Any individual who is a member of the joint account can withdraw from the account and deposit to it. Usually, joint accounts are shared between close relatives or business partners.
Joint And Several Liability
Where two or more persons are liable in respect of the same liability, in most common law legal systems they may either be...
Where two or more persons are liable in respect of the same liability, in most common law legal systems they may either be...
Given random variables X, Y,..., that are defined on a probability space, the joint probability distribution for X, Y,... is a probability distribution that gives the probability that each of X, Y,... falls in any particular range or discrete set of values specified for that variable. In the case of only two random variables, this is called a bivariate distribution, but the concept generalizes to any number of random variables, giving a multivariate distribution.
Joint Stock Company
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion, evidenced by their shares. Shareholders are able to transfer their shares to others without any effects to the continued existence of the company.
A concurrent estate or co-tenancy is a concept in property law which describes the various ways in which property is owned by more than one person at a time. If more than one person owns the same property, they are commonly referred to as co-owners. Legal terminology for co-owners of real estate is either co-tenants or joint tenants, with the latter phrase signifying a right of survivorship. Most common law jurisdictions recognize tenancies in common and joint tenancies, and some also recognize tenancies by the entirety, which is a joint tenancy between married persons. Many jurisdictions refer to a joint tenancy as a joint tenancy with right of survivorship, but they are the same, as every joint tenancy includes a right of survivorship. In contrast, a tenancy in common does not include a right of survivorship.