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Sample

What is a 'Sample'

A sample is a subset containing the characteristics of a larger population. Samples are used in statistical testing when population sizes are too large for the test to include all possible members or observations. A sample should represent the whole population and not reflect bias toward a specific attribute.

Explaining 'Sample'

A sample is a smaller, manageable version of a larger group. For example, if you wanted to test an investment strategy on past stock data, you would have an enormous number of stocks to test. Instead of testing the strategy on every stock, you would use a sample, which allows you to draw statistical insights from a smaller group of stocks. The sample should not contain any bias, such as the survivorship bias, where you might only use stocks that have survived the entire length of time you wish to test. Choosing a sample randomly should eliminate the possibilities of bias.


Further Reading


An empirical comparison of published replication research in accounting, economics, finance, management, and marketing
www.sciencedirect.com [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

Absolute Income, Relative Income and Subjective Well-being: Empirical Test Based on the Sample Data of Urban and Rural Households in China <span style=[J]' src='/thumbnails/?img=http%3A%2F%2Fen.cnki.com.cn%2FArticle_en%2FCJFDTotal-CJYJ200911009.htm' />Absolute Income, Relative Income and Subjective Well-being: Empirical Test Based on the Sample Data of Urban and Rural Households in China [J]
en.cnki.com.cn [[J]' href='https:/api.miniature.io/pdf?url=en.cnki.com.cn%2FArticle_en%2FCJFDTotal-CJYJ200911009.htm'>PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

Small sample properties of GARCH estimates and persistenceSmall sample properties of GARCH estimates and persistence
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

Event studies in economics and financeEvent studies in economics and finance
www.jstor.org [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

The Basel II reform and the provision of finance for R & D activities in SMEs: An analysis of a sample of Italian companiesThe Basel II reform and the provision of finance for R & D activities in SMEs: An analysis of a sample of Italian companies
journals.sagepub.com [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

Predicting corporate financial distress: reflections on choice-based sample biasPredicting corporate financial distress: reflections on choice-based sample bias
link.springer.com [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

The Impact of Industry Trade on Employment in China: An Empirical Study Based on a Sample of 32-Industry Panel Data <span style=[J]' src='/thumbnails/?img=http%3A%2F%2Fen.cnki.com.cn%2FArticle_en%2FCJFDTotal-CMJJ200708017.htm' />The Impact of Industry Trade on Employment in China: An Empirical Study Based on a Sample of 32-Industry Panel Data [J]
en.cnki.com.cn [[J]' href='https:/api.miniature.io/pdf?url=en.cnki.com.cn%2FArticle_en%2FCJFDTotal-CMJJ200708017.htm'>PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

Econometrical analysis of the sample efficient frontierEconometrical analysis of the sample efficient frontier
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

Pitfalls in the application of discriminant analysis in business, finance, and economicsPitfalls in the application of discriminant analysis in business, finance, and economics
www.jstor.org [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …

Chaos and nonlinear forecastability in economics and financeChaos and nonlinear forecastability in economics and finance
royalsocietypublishing.org [PDF]
… The publication frequency of replications and extensions in the business literature was examined by content-analyzing a sim- ple random sample of 25% of the issues from leading journals in the accounting, economics, finance, and management dis- ciplines from 1970 through …



Q&A About Sample


What should be avoided when selecting a sample?

The sample should not contain any bias.

Why would you use a sample instead of the entire population?

You would use samples when there are too many members in the population to include all possible members or observations in your test.

What is a sample?

A sample is a subset containing the characteristics of a larger population.

How can bias be avoided in sampling?

Choosing samples randomly will eliminate biases.

What does survivorship bias mean?

Survivorship bias means that only stocks that have survived the entire length of time you wish to test are included in your test data set.

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