What is ‘Parity’
Parity refers to two things being equal to each other. The term “par value” for a bond is similar to parity. Parity can also refer to two securities having equal value, such as a convertible bond and the value of the stock if the bondholder chooses to convert into common stock.
Many investors have to make decisions about the value of two different investments. A convertible bond, for example, allows the investor to own a bond and earn a stated rate of interest or convert the bond into a fixed number of shares of common stock. Assume, for example, that an investor can own a $1,000 corporate bond with a market price of $1,200 or convert the bond into 100 shares of common stock. If the stock’s market price is $12, the market value of the 100 shares of stock is also $1,200. As a result, the bond and the stock are at parity.
Factoring in Options
The term “parity” also applies to stock options. One call option, for example, allows the owner to buy 100 shares of stock at a specific price (strike price) for a stated period of time. Assume that an investor owns a $50 call option that expires on September 30. The investor has the right to buy 100 shares of stock at $50 per share until the expiration date in September.
How Currency Trading Defines Parity
Companies based in the United States that have operations in foreign countries must convert U.S. dollars into other currencies. If a U.S. firm does business in France, for example, the company can convert U.S. dollars into euros and sends those euros to fund its French business operations. If the exchange rate is $1 to €1, the currencies are at parity.
Examples of Parity in Asset Management
Risk parity is an asset management process that evaluates risk based on asset classes rather than allocation of capital. Tradition asset allocation strategy divides assets between stocks, bonds and cash. The goal is to provide diversify and reduce risk by using these the types of investments. Risk parity, on the other hand, allocates dollars based on four components: equities, credit, interest rates and commodities. Risk parity attempts to reduce risk and increase investment returns.
- Threshold cointegration and purchasing power parity in the pacific nations – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
- Purchasing power parity and unit root tests using panel data – www.sciencedirect.com [PDF]
- New evidence on purchasing power parity from 17 OECD countries – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
- New evidence of the validity of purchasing power parity from Turkey – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
- National price levels, purchasing power parity, and cointegration: a test of four high inflation economies – www.sciencedirect.com [PDF]
- Testing long-run validity of purchasing power parity for selected emerging market economies – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
- The politics and economics of mental health 'parity'laws – www.healthaffairs.org [PDF]
- Evidence on the purchasing power parity in a panel of cities – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
- Purchasing power parity in economies in transition: evidence from Central and East European countries – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
- Testing purchasing power parity hypothesis for transition economies – www.tandfonline.com [PDF]