BROWSE

Hardening

What is 'Hardening'

1. A term used to describe a price of commodity or futures contracts that is gradually stabilizing.



2. A futures market that is slowly advancing in prices.

Explaining 'Hardening'

1. After a rise or fall in prices, a slow return to historically accepted levels is considered a hardening.



2. The prices of future contracts are considered to be hardening if they are increasing slowly, unlike a bulge market, in which the prices rise sharply.


Further Reading


The global financial crisis and the financial stability board: Hardening the soft law of international financial regulation
heinonline.org [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

The Evolution of the EU Law against Criminal Finance: The Hardening of FATF Standard within the EUThe Evolution of the EU Law against Criminal Finance: The Hardening of FATF Standard within the EU
heinonline.org [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

The European Union as hardening agent: soft law and the diffusion of global financial regulationThe European Union as hardening agent: soft law and the diffusion of global financial regulation
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

Microstructure, indentation and work hardening of Cu/Ag multilayersMicrostructure, indentation and work hardening of Cu/Ag multilayers
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

Hardening Budget Constraints: A Cross-National Study of Fiscal Sustainability and Subnational DebtHardening Budget Constraints: A Cross-National Study of Fiscal Sustainability and Subnational Debt
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

Hardening of the budget constraint under the postsocialist systemHardening of the budget constraint under the postsocialist system
www.sciencedirect.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

Strain hardening behaviour and the Taylor factor of pure magnesiumStrain hardening behaviour and the Taylor factor of pure magnesium
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

Exploring visitor acceptability for hardening trails to sustain visitation and minimise impactsExploring visitor acceptability for hardening trails to sustain visitation and minimise impacts
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

Back stress strengthening and strain hardening in gradient structureBack stress strengthening and strain hardening in gradient structure
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …

Perspective on hetero-deformation induced (HDI) hardening and back stressPerspective on hetero-deformation induced (HDI) hardening and back stress
www.tandfonline.com [PDF]
… THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY BOARD: HARDENING THE SOFT LAW OF INTERNATIONAL … 27 Expert groups include the Institute of International Finance, the Group of Thirty, the Institute for International Economics and a plethora of …



Q&A About Hardening


How does QT differ from QE?

Quantitative easing was massively applied by leading central banks to counter the Great Recession that started in 28. The prime rates were decreased to zero; some rates later went into negative territory. For example, to fight with ultra-low inflation or deflation caused by the economic crisis, the European Central Bank, overseeing monetary policy for countries that use the euro, introduced negative rates in 214. The central banks of Japan, Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland also set negative rates.

What is the difference between hardening and bulging?

In a hardening market, prices are slowly advancing in prices. This is unlike a bulge market, where the prices rise sharply.

What are some goals of QT?

The main goal of QT is normalizing (i.e., raising) interest rates and reducing excess reserves held at central banks so as not to create an environment where inflation can occur without warning and without any control over it on behalf of policymakers who will have no room left for further rate cuts if needed due to future recessions or financial crises such as what happened during 2008–2009 financial crisis when all conventional measures had been exhausted and unconventional ones had been tried but failed miserably because they did not work as intended which led many economists including Ben Bernanke himself saying that he would do whatever it takes even if it meant dropping cash out of helicopters onto people's houses which he said jokingly but his statement was taken seriously by many people who thought he really would do this if necessary although most economists agreed that doing this would be highly impractical since there are only two ways you could drop cash from helicopters onto people's houses either through military aircrafts or commercial airlines which means you'd need cooperation from both private companies like FedEx

What does it mean for future contracts to be considered as hardening?

If they are increasing slowly, unlike bulging markets, where the prices rise sharply.

What is quantitative tightening?

Quantitative tightening (QT) is a contractionary monetary policy applied by a central bank to decrease the amount of liquidity within the economy. The policy is the reverse of quantitative easing (QE), aimed to increase money supply in order to "stimulate" the economy.

What does the term hardening mean?

A term used to describe a price of commodity or futures contracts that is gradually stabilizing.

How do you know if there is a hardening market?

After a rise or fall in prices, a slow return to historically accepted levels is considered as hardening.

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