The judge said his sentence would begin immediately in a rehabilitation facility designed for prisoners guilty of crimes related to alcohol and domestic abuse.
Cabrera, who last played professional golf in September 2020, fled to Brazil following accusations made by his former wife Cecilia Torres Mana.
He was arrested at the beginning of the year in Rio de Janeiro before being extradited to Cordoba in June.
The 2007 U.S. Open and 2009 Masters winner faces at least six other charges of domestic violence dating from 2014 and brought by at least one other woman in addition to Torres Mana. Reporting by Andrew Downie; Editing by Toby Davis