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Factbox: What’s the difference between three U.S. plans for police reform

President Donald Trump has signed an executive order to address police misconduct following the killing of an African American man, George Floyd, in police custody. FILE PHOTO - A participant raises a fist against police officers during an All Black Lives Matter march, organized by Black LGBTQ+ leaders, in the aftermath of the death in Minneapolis police custody of George Floyd, in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, U.S., June 14, 2020. REUTERS/Ringo ChiuDemocrats in the U.S. House of Representatives and Republicans in the Senate are also advancing separate bills to tackle the issue. Following is a summary of the three approaches: MISCONDUCT LAWSUITS Democrats - Reduce “qualified immunity” protections that shield police from civil misconduct lawsuits. Republicans - No provision. Trump - No provision. CHOKEHOLDS Democrats - Designate chokeholds as deadly force that can be used only when necessary to protect life, and make unnecessary use a violation of U.S. civil rights law; withhold federal grant money from police departments that do not ban chokeholds. Republicans - Withhold federal funds from police agencies that do not prohibit chokeholds, except when deadly force is authorized; instruct the U.S. Attorney General to develop a policy to ban chokeholds by federal law enforcement. Trump - Order the Attorney General to certify independent bodies to confirm that law enforcement agencies prohibit the use of chokeholds, except where deadly force is allowed. USE OF FORCE Democrats - Require deadly force to be used only as a last resort; require police agencies to report use-of-force data. Republicans - Require local governments to report deaths or injuries caused by police; instruct the Justice Department to develop training in alternatives to the use of force. Trump - Set up independent bodies to ensure that use-of-force policies are legal; create a federal database to record instances of excessive use of force. NO-KNOCK WARRANTS Democrats - Ban no-knock warrants in federal drug investigations; withhold grant money from police agencies that use no-knock warrants. Republicans - Require police agencies to report use of no-knock warrants. Trump - No provision. LYNCHING Democrats - Designate lynching as a federal hate crime. Republicans - Designate lynching as a federal hate crime. Trump - No provision. RACIAL PROFILING Democrats - Eliminate federal practices that involve racial and religious profiling; require police agencies to eliminate profiling in order to get federal aid; allow lawsuits by victims of profiling. Republicans - No provision. Trump - No provision. BODY CAMERAS Democrats - Require federal law enforcement to use body cameras; grant money for local agencies that use body cameras. Republicans - Make federal funds available to police agencies that require body cameras. Trump - No provision. MENTAL HEALTH AND HOMELESSNESS Democrats - No provision. Republicans - Study programs to improve police engagement on mental health, homelessness and addiction. Trump - Enable social workers to team up with police to deal with those suffering from mental illness, homelessness and addiction; set up training for police.

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